Resistance Training and the Older Adult

Resistance Training and the Older Adult

From the American College of Sports Medicine, Comments and Position Statements

This article has some plain English and some sciencey stuff. Give it a try if you don’t usually like the longer, data-filled articles. The bits in quotes are directly from the article, written for the American College of Sports Medicine by Darryn S. Willoughby, Ph.D., CSCS, FACSM. I have included a few of my own comments in parentheses. Italics and bold type are also my additions. And, yes, I have used most of the ideas outlined here and adapted them for old pet rehabilitation–RehabDeb.

Great Dane, Miss Moneypenny, Taking a Break From Old Pet Rehabilitation
Great Dane, Miss Moneypenny, Taking a Break After Exercise Program

Benefits of Resistance Training in Older Adults –

“The health benefits of appropriately prescribed long-term (more than 12 weeks) resistance training in older adults–ages 65 and older–are well known. They include improvements in muscle strength and endurance; other possible health benefits include increase in muscle mass, which translates into improvements in functional capacity. In addition, increased weight bearing with resistance training is considered beneficial in improving bone density and combating the effects of osteoporosis.”

(Rehabdeb note: the above is basically true for other mammals as well.)

Appropriate Programs for Function –

“Achieving appropriate levels of function is very important for older adults so they are able to carry out most of the daily living skills necessary to lead independent lives. Due to the fact that muscle wasting (sarcopenia) and weakness, exacerbated by physical inactivity, is prevalent in the aging population, more emphasis has been placed on developing resistance-training programs for older adults. When developing resistance-training programs for this group, important components to consider are the various training-related variables: frequency, duration, exercises, sets, intensity, repetitions, and progression.”

Orthopedic Issues and Resistance Training –

“Older adults often have orthopedic issues that contraindicate resistance training of the affected joint(s). Older adults are also at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, and in many cases have even been diagnosed with it. Therefore, it is critical that the older adult receive prior approval from their physician before participating in resistance training.

It should be noted that proper supervision of the individual’s resistance-training program, including any testing procedures, by an appropriately trained exercise professional, is highly recommended. It should also be noted that performing maximum strength testing in many older adults is not recommended. Therefore, when strength testing is appropriate, sub-maximum testing protocols for estimating maximum strength are recommended.”

Frequency –  

“Exercise may be categorized as either multi-joint, meaning more than one joint is dynamically involved to perform the exercise (e.g., bench press, shoulder press, leg press), or uni-joint, meaning only one joint is dynamically involved (e.g., bicep curls, triceps extensions, leg extensions). In the older adult, the resistance-training program should focus primarily on multi-joint exercises. Uni-joint exercises are not discouraged entirely but should not make up the majority of exercises within the training program.

If a person is performing both multi-joint and uni-joint exercises for a particular muscle group, it is recommended that the multi-joint exercise(s) be performed before the uni-joint exercise. Additionally, within each resistance-training workout, larger muscle groups (i.e., legs, back, and chest) should be worked before smaller muscle groups (i.e., arms and shoulders).”

Equipment for Humans –

Additionally, machines are recommended over free weights (i.e., barbells and dumbbells) due to skill-related and safety factors. As the individual progresses, they can use free-weight exercises appropriate for their level of skill, training status and functional capacity.

(Rehabdeb note: I design some programs using weights for pets. Otherwise, we don’t have weight machines, per se, in veterinary rehabilitation. There are some standard tools and equipment recommended in veterinary rehabilitation programs. Most practitioners use those tools before building a good foundation. They are also often troublesome for a client to use successfully at home. Veterinary rehab clinicians often use a water treadmill when other work would be more effective. It really helps a practitioner to know functional recovery at the professional human sports level.)

Muscle Groups –

“Traditionally, muscle groups are classified as the following: 1) chest, 2) shoulders, 3) arms, 4) back, 5) abdomen, and 6) legs. Specifically, the chest group contains the pectoral muscles, the shoulder group contains the deltoid, rotator cuff, scapular stabilizers and trapezius muscles, the arm group contains the biceps, triceps, and forearm muscles, the back group contains the latissimus dorsi of the upper back and the erector muscles of the lower back, the abdomen group contains the rectus abdominis, oblique, and intercostals muscles, and the leg group contains the hip (gluteals), thigh (quadriceps), and hamstring muscles.

In the older adult, it is important to attempt to incorporate all six of these muscle groups into the comprehensive resistance-training program.”

(Rehabdeb note: same for other animals ^^. A practitioner with enough experience in program design and implementation can design programs for you. You may use my programs at home with your pet to meet the goals in this statement paper.)

How Much Exercise for Benefits?

“It has been recommended that one to two exercises per muscle group is normally adequate. Noteworthy here is to understand that by employing primarily multi-joint exercises in the resistance training program one may actually exercise more than one muscle group or specific muscle per exercise.

For example, in performing the leg press exercise the quadriceps, hamstrings, and gluteal muscles are all involved and, in many cases, this could eliminate the need to perform any uni-joint exercises for those particular muscles.

Studies have shown improvements in muscle strength employing ranges of one to three sets of each exercise during the training program.”

Some Human-Based Guidelines –

“Based on current guidelines, it would be recommended that the individual start with one set of each exercise and, depending on individual need, possibly progress up to no more than three sets when the fitness professional deems it appropriate. It should be noted, however, that an average of two sets of each exercise would be beneficial for most individuals. To avoid excess fatigue, a two-to-three minute rest period between sets and exercises is recommended.”

(Rehabdeb note: I have based my basic programs and my advanced pet rehab work on principles of sport science recovery. I also incorporate advanced human surgical recovery plans and exercise science program design.  Often I need to merge elements of neuroscience and neurology. Veterinary medicine plays the part of diagnosis, prescribing medication, and oversight of cases in collaboration with a professional rehabilitation specialist. I design programs taking into account the busy status of most people’s lives. I plan for practical application of physical recovery principles, and timing of work for best recovery.)

Intensity of Work –

“Intensity refers to the amount of weight being lifted, and is a critical component of the resistance-training program, considered by many fitness professionals to be the most important training-related variable for inducing improvements in muscle strength and function.

In other words, the more weight lifted, the more strength gained. Even though this may not always be the case, the importance of intensity in facilitating strength improvements is well documented.

Intensity is often expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount of weight that can be lifted for a given exercise (1RM). For example, if someone who has a maximum effort of 100 pounds on the bench press exercise performs a set with 80 pounds, they would be training at 1RM of 80%. Studies have suggested that older individuals are able to tolerate higher intensities of exercise, up to 85%.

However, research has also shown intensities ranging from 65%-75% of maximum to significantly increase muscle strength. Therefore, in order to increase strength while simultaneously decreasing the risk of musculoskeletal injury that often accompanies higher intensities of resistance training, a low-intensity to moderate-intensity range of 65%-75% is recommended.”

(Rehabdeb note: So, for example, this is why I don’t recommend hill repeats for your knee or hip injury pet only 2 weeks into a foundation program. I have seen this recommendation on discharge instructions. If a person doesn’t have experience with program design and lots of implementation, they often push too much too fast.)

Repetitions –

“Repetitions (reps) refer to the number of times an individual performs a complete movement of a given exercise. There is an inverse relationship between intensity and repetitions, indicating that as the intensity increases the repetitions should decrease.

Based on previous research, a rep continuum has been established that demonstrates the number of repetitions possible at a given relative intensity. For example, an intensity of 60% relates to 16-20 reps, 65% = 14-15 reps, 70% = 12-13 reps, 75% = 10-11 reps, 80% = 8-9 reps, 85% = 6-7 reps, 90% = 4-5 reps, 95% = 2-3 reps, and 100% = 1 rep.”

(Rehabdeb note: it might be obvious that this recommendation is specifically for humans. This information is based in large part on specific observation of and verbal feedback from human subjects. The research is based on many other measurements, though, as well. I’d love to do the work on determining rep protocol for pets, specific for breeds and species. Nonetheless, the information should be helpful to you if you are an exercise scientist.)

“In view of the previously mentioned recommendations for an intensity of 65%-75% of maximum, this would suggest that for each training exercise the individual perform an adequate amount of weight that would allow for 10-15 reps. In the event that no initial strength testing was performed, simply through trial-and-error an individual could determine appropriate training loads that would allow them to perform only 10-15 reps. They could then be sure of training at 65%-75% of maximum effort.”

(Rehabdeb note: I have designed my broad foundation-building program, as well as my specific programs, to allow for info like that above.)

Continued Improvement Needs Work –

“In order to continually enjoy improvements in strength and functional capacity, it is important to consistently incorporate progression and variation into the resistance-training program.

Progressing and varying one’s program commonly involves incorporating the overload principle.

The overload principle involves making adjustments to the training variables of the resistance-training program such as frequency, duration, exercises for each muscle group, number of exercise for each muscle group, sets and repetitions.

In terms of adjustment, normally the overload principle involves making increases to these variables. For example, making progressive increases in intensity has been shown to be important in increasing muscle strength. In terms of the rate of progression, one should consider attempting to progress their resistance-training program on a monthly basis. However, it should be noted that increasing the intensity in some older adults may be contraindicated due to orthopedic and/or other medical limitations. As a result, making adjustments in other training variables would be recommended.”

(Rehabdeb note: I work to change the nature of veterinary rehabilitation to better instruct practitioners. It is important to incorporate principles specifically noted in the last section, above, into a veterinary physical rehabilitation program.)

Thanks for reading and for looking for solid help for your pet-

Deborah

Paper published August, 2009 and originally posted on my website around that time. My comments updated May 16, 2018

 

Rehab for Pet Surgery – 3 Steps

 

Spaniel dog with plastic Elizabethan collar on her

Jicky the Spaniel in the E-Collar after FHO

A quick bit of info for you after your pet has had surgery.

I do work on lots of cats and a variety of other animals. If you want to know more about cat specifics now, please search for cat in the search box. I’m still working on developing the cat information pages.

For more specific info on a particular condition, please refer to the menus at the top of the page. If you do not see what you are looking for, please use the search box on any  page.

If the injury is a torn knee ligament, then please click here to read more info about that condition. After that, please go to the instructions on this page!

“My pet just had surgery…
…and now that I’ve gotten them home, I realize I’m not really sure what to do!!”

First and foremost:  pay attention to the discharge instructions your veterinarian has given you if your pet just had surgery or you have received instruction about an injury.  Please pay special attention to the part about no running, jumping, or playing. You and your pet will be doing good work for recovery if you exactly follow my booklet instructions.

If your veterinarian did not say so, please note there should not be any flying over couches, no galloping on stairs, no jumping into or out of cars and trucks,  no jumping onto couches or your bed, no jumping off of couches or beds, no twisting very fast in tight circles, no sliding on ice or slippery floors, and no freedom in and out of doggie doors.  No owner jumping out from behind things to scare the dog into running crazy funny around the house like you sometimes like to do.

No running really means no running…

…to the door when the doorbell rings, no running away from Halloween costumes, no running from one end of the house to the kitchen every time the fridge or a plastic bag is opened, no running to you when you yell to ask the dog if it wants to go outside, no kitty running from anything right after surgery, and no running inside after the ball, which is very similar to no running outside after the ball. No, no swimming until at least eight weeks after surgery and then only if no lameness is present at a slow walk.

DO work on the protocol below and the info contained in the instruction booklet.

1) Here are guidelines to follow for the first four weeks after surgery:

I currently have published one book to help your pet through four progressive weeks of recovery after any surgery.

Guidelines for Home Rehabilitation of Your Dog: After Surgery for Torn Knee Ligament: The First Four Weeks, Basic Edition

This book is specifically addressing surgery after a torn knee ligament. Until I am able to publish the books I am working on that deal with soft tissue surgeries, hip issues, other knee issues, elbows, spinal issues and more, this book will be very helpful to you for the first four weeks of recovery if your dog has had one of these other surgeries.

This book has the information, restrictions and advice I would give after almost any surgery. If you follow the restrictions and the practical applications in the booklet, your pet should do well and recover progressively if there are no additional issues.  These restrictions will match a lot of what your vet surgeon gave you to follow after surgery.

My recommendations are based on decades of information we have in human sports medicine recovery. These methods matches up very well how your pet thinks and moves and behaves. This program matches up scientifically with how the body recovers.

These instructions incorporate steps  for functional recovery, so there is a LOT more structured and guided info in the book. The links to the book I made for this page will take you to Amazon. You may order the book from any bookstore using the ISBN.

I also have info elsewhere on this site about cats and surgery. Cats aren’t small dogs. Unless your cat will walk on a leash, which some do very well, I recommend looking at this page for now.

So, the following book will help you calmly and methodically approach recovery from your pet’s surgery. The book will guide you to establish a functional base of activity.  You have to build a good base to help recovery and to of avoid additional injury. This is only the base. I have more strengthening programs and other drills for you to do to return your pet to a rambunctious lifestyle.

A good recovery plan helps guard against future or further injury, especially in the opposite limb! I am very happy to report that people and dogs that follow both this and the non-surgical program for 12 weeks do not end up with the other knee ligament tearing. It’s all a matter of balancing the work. I design programs based on decades of experience with exercise physiology recovery principles.  My programs also help encourage people being connected to their pets!


Amazon

Books are also available on Barnes and Noble and you should be able to order them from any bookseller, especially if you use the ISBN.

Instructions for first four weeks for dogs after FHO (hip surgery where the ball of the femur is cut off):

Instructions for first four weeks after surgery for luxating patellas (flopping kneecaps):

Find a few more homework info pages by following the links in the menu at the top of the page.  Also use the search feature.

2) In addition to thoroughly reading any of that info (some of which now includes exercises available in book form), please watch > this video < twice, and begin to do this massage daily for a month:

Please watch the video to see my recommendations on method of use for massager unit AND so you will hopefully have success introducing the massager.

There are written instructions under the video on the linked page.
Here is what the massager looks like, and if you click on the picture, you may buy it on Amazon if you choose:

3) If your pet is still limping 5-7 days or more after surgery, please read this > pain post < all the way through!

There is more on the topic of pain within the books-

Check out other resources under the “Rehab Resources & Tools” link in the menu under the website title at the top or by clicking here

If you would like advanced or personalized exercises, then please contact me for a consult. There is a contact form at the bottom of this page <<Click on link . Use this form if you would like to schedule a paid phone or in-person consult with me for rehabilitation for your pet.

Blessings-
Rehabdeb

(Original Post March 17, 2015. Updated July 29, 2019)

Books for After Surgery: Functional Recovery and Rehabilitation

Has your pet had surgery? Do you need a rehabilitation plan to follow at home?

Then take a moment to look over this site, follow the instructions on the surgery page, and stay calm and thoughtful about your work with your pet.

This book is the program to follow to begin recovery after most orthopedic or neurological surgeries.

Rehabilitation after surgery for torn knee ligament:

Click on THIS LINK, and you should be directed to Amazon in your country, unless you live in these countries – Australia, Brasil, India, Mexico, Nederland , in which case you should click on the name of your country ^^ to be taken to the book.

(available on Kindle and in paperback, and you may order the paperback through any bookseller by using the ISBN 978-0615905358)

Some Reviews About the Books…

(click ^^)

 

Conservative Treatment Books: Instead of or Before Surgery (Pre-hab):

This book is the program to follow to begin recovery for most orthopedic or muscular injuries! This includes hip problems, ankle problems, and others.

Has your pet been injured, and it’s not “life or death”? A torn knee ligament, hip dysplasia, and luxating kneecaps are examples of “not life or death”.

Then take a moment to look over this site, follow the instructions on the “injured” page, and take a deep breath!

This book is the program to follow to begin recovery for most orthopedic or muscular injuries!

Conservative treatment after torn knee ligament, instead of or prior to surgery:

booklet with instructions for you to follow with your dog after injury, instead of surgery or prior to surgery

(click on the THIS LINK, and you should be directed to Amazon in your country, unless you live in these countries –  Australia, Brasil, India, Mexico, Nederland = you should click on the name of your country to be taken to the book).

(available on Kindle and in paperback, and you may order the paperback through any bookseller)

Some Reviews…

A Few Amazon reviews I took time to copy/paste here for you (additional testimonials are above, in the Feedback section):

“I’ve known Deborah Carroll for several years and she has worked with us rehabbing our 90lb Hound/Lab mix. I have always found her to be chock full of great scientific information in rehabbing your pet and the booklet simplifies all that into simple to understand protocol and reasons to follow the protocol to help your dog. Short read but well worth it. I love it!”
D.B., Amazon Review

“The book easily outlines a plan to rehabilitate your dog from a knee injury. I now feel like there is hope for his long term recovery. Thanks Deb!”
Amazon Review

“Using the methods described in this book, we were able to completely rehabilitate our Labrador retriever from a torn ACL without having surgery. Very thankful that this book was so easily accessible!”
H.P., Amazon Review

“I chose not to have my 9 year old Lab put through the stress of surgery on his torn CCL – knowing that he is already showing signs of the other leg being injured. After much research, I found Deborah’s website and read a lot of the blog posts where I learned of her book. I have been using the therapy in the book now for about a month and it is working well in conjunction with some holistic remedies and massage, Since the process of healing is really the same for both non-surgery and surgery dogs, this book will help either way! Easy to follow, but you do have to stick with it to see results.”
Amazon Review

“I have worked in a variety of animal care fields – as a veterinary technician, pet sitter, and behavior consultant – since 1997, and have several mutual clients with the author. As such, I have seen first-hand what she can do for both her clients and patients. Her knowledge, skill, and bedside manner are impeccable, to the point that she has become the only person that I refer people to for small animal rehabilitation in the Austin area. I am so glad that she has written this book, so that people who live outside the Austin area can benefit from her expertise. I highly recommend it!”
Emily S., Amazon Review, From Beaks to Barks

“This was an easy to read and understand guidebook. There were lots of practical tips offered. Her program is something I can follow on a day to day basis. The author has obviously had lots of experience with dog rehabilitation and wants the best for our dogs.”
Lori L., Amazon Review

“I love Deborah Carroll and her approaches to rehab/conditioning- we see her next week.”
Courtney K, Austin, TX Courtney’s Agility Page

Links to Books and Best Boots for Traction

Hey!

I finally finished adding the links for my books on the first four weeks of recovery post-op and post-injury on this page:

Books!

And you will find links to purchase the booklets from most Amazon platforms around the world. I include Amazon links because the booklets are available on Kindle, and I offer some promotions on both Kindle and paperback versions that are only available on Amazon.
You may purchase the books through any bookseller by asking for them using the ISBN. You may find all the info you need to order from another bookseller by clicking through to the Amazon link and copying what your bookseller requires from the details below the book.

I do not currently offer the booklets in a language other than English, however I hope to translate into Spanish, French, German, and Italian in the near future as well as add other translations too!

I continue to work on editing the new version of the booklets, so clinics and rescues and shelters may still take advantage of the offer I have had in place for many years. You may easily use this page to order at a discount for clinics, rescues, and shelters:

Ordering for clinics, shelters, and rescue organizations!

I also just finished locating the boots and shoes I use to help pets with neurological problems to gain traction and stability (plus for hot pavement, ice, snow, jagged streets and terrain…) on many Amazon platforms around the world, including the USA, so I posted the links here:

Boots & Shoes for Traction + Instructions

I have included a lot of instruction and helpful hints from my 12+ years of working with different boots, shoes, socks, and more to gain traction for pets on this page and even more instructions are in a separate post linked from the page in the link just above this paragraph. I have a lot more items to post about that will help around the home, besides boots, shoes, etc…but this is what I have finished now, and I didn’t want to wait to put this info right in front of you.

Thank you-

Blessings-

Rehabdeb

2/22/17