Massage is Promising for Muscle Recovery

Massage Muscle Inflammation –

Feb. 1, 2012 — Researchers at McMaster University have discovered a brief 10-minute massage helps reduce inflammation in muscle.

Massage muscle inflammation! “As a non-drug therapy, massage holds the potential to help not just bone-weary athletes but those with inflammation-related chronic conditions, such as arthritis or muscular dystrophy”, says Justin Crane, a doctoral student in the Department of Kinesiology at McMaster.

While massage is well accepted as a therapy for relieving muscle tension and pain, the researchers delved deeper to find it also triggers biochemical sensors that can send inflammation-reducing signals to muscle cells. In addition, massage signals muscle to build more mitochondria, the power centres of cells which play an important role in healing.

What Happens to the Muscles During Massage?

“The main thing is that no one has ever looked inside the muscle to see what is happening with massage. This is what is novel about our study. No one has looked at the biochemical effects or what might be going on in the muscle itself,” said Crane.

“We have shown the muscle senses that it is being stretched and this appears to reduce the cells’ inflammatory response. “As a consequence, massage may be beneficial for recovery from injury.”

Crane said the McMaster researchers are the first to take a manual therapy, like massage, and subsequently test the effect using a muscle biopsy. They did this to show massage reduces inflammation, which is an underlying factor in many chronic diseases.

Crane admits his surprise that just 10 minutes of massage had such a profound effect. “I didn’t think that little bit of massage could produce that remarkable of a change. This was especially since the exercise was so robust. Seventy minutes of exercise compared to 10 of massage, it is clearly potent.”

The results hint that massage therapy blunts muscle pain by the same biological mechanisms as most pain medications. Massage therapy, therefore, could be an effective alternative.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Muscle Atrophy –

Dr. Mark Tarnopolsky, professor of medicine for the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, oversaw the study.

Given that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with muscle atrophy and other processes such as insulin resistance, any therapy that can improve mitochondrial function may be beneficial,” he said.

Crane said this study is only a first step in determining the best therapies for promoting recovery from a variety of muscle injuries.

He said that surprisingly the research proved one oft-repeated idea false! Massage did not help clear lactic acid from tired muscles.

The research appears in the Feb. 1 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

From ScienceDaily.com

 

Questions About Dog Hip Surgery

 

Questions About Hip Surgery

About Clark

From the client:

You are so awesome!!! We took him to the vet yesterday and he gave me Rimadyl and Tramadol to help with pain and inflammation. I haven’t had him in for x-rays yet, would that be helpful for you? The vet said he didn’t see any signs of being hit by a car recently that would tell him that there was something broken. I was going to have him fixed this weekend, but I can wait if you think it would be best to see you first. You are worth every penny + some and I will be prepared to pay you for the time you spend with him. ;0) He is a shepherd mix about 14 months old. Just a baby with a sweet, sweet heart and a crappy start. Let me know if you want x-rays and if I should wait on having his boys removed and I can be available anytime Wednesday on next week.

Me:

I’ve been thinking about it, and I think it would be a good idea to get the manly-man surgery out of the way first.
When he gets pain meds for that, you may be able to see a difference in his demeanor or comfort, regarding his hips/legs, so take note of that.
Yes, and it may be hard to tell ;))
I can tell a lot without xrays, and often they get in the way in part of our brains regarding a better clinical evaluation. On the other hand, since he will be sedated, it will be a great time for x-rays, so go ahead if your vet is on board (which I’m pretty sure he will be!)
If he gets surgerized this weekend, I could see him next Thurs or Fri or when ever your schedule allows after that…
What do you think?
:)) Blessings-

Me:

After our first evaluation, my bullet point recommendations were to

1) restrict and crate when not at home for the next 2 weeks.

2) Begin exercise protocol noted on my FHO homework sheet, beginning with week 2, 2-4×10 min walks daily, very slowly (wedding march).

3) Use medications as per label, giving the Tramadol 30 minutes to 2 hrs. prior to walking if possible. Regarding your dosing question and the variability noted on the label, give the larger dose in the morning if you will be walking him in the morning, otherwise just give the smaller dose. Give the larger dose when you get home in the afternoon/evening, in prep for 1-2 pm walks. Give 2 hrs. rest period in-between walks (as per homework sheet).

4) Feed grain-free kibble (no barley or oats or rice, either, right now), Omega 3 in fish oil capsules as discussed, and joint formula that contains at least two of the following: glucosamine, chondroitin, msm.

Client:

(after having some problems with Clark, a rescue, and other dogs adjusting)

Hi!

We still have our friend. We made some adjustments and he seems to have settled a little bit. He has the sunroom to himself at night and during the day…we call it his puppy apartment. ;0) Everyone seems happy.
We took him off the Rymadal (SP?) because he was getting sick. And I’ve scaled back on the pain meds and give them when he is looking a little stiff. We are trying REALLY hard to stick to the directions, but I’m afraid it’s a modified version. He is still during the day and at night and we have shortened his time outside with the girls and I’ve been good at at least one walk a day…sometimes I get lucky and can get two. We will get it fine tuned…it’s just going to take a little time.
The vet is REALLY, REALLY pushing the surgery…I’m not doing Clark long term harm by not opting for surgery…right? You would think it by talking to him.

Anywho, thanks for checking in and the great direction. You idea to crate him at night helped everyone out!! ;0)

I will keep you posted on progress…just might be a little longer than 4 weeks.

Have a wonderful week!

Me:

Ok, so, I’m going to tie in our texts here and I think we should have a recheck to keep you guys on task…so that you see the improvements, and Clark improves, and others may see and reevaluate their insistance on surgery.

In Clark’s case, I don’t hear that anyone is concerned about gross malformation of the pelvis or a femur that is deformed beyond function, so there is no clinical reason to not employ muscle-building & joint strengthening techniques to appreciate improvement. The reports you have given me, verbal from the vet and the view of the x-rays, don’t indicate “horrible hips” and don’t indicate hips beyond the level at which others have improved without surgery. Clark is young. Perhaps your intervention staves off the need for surgery for the remainder of his life or perhaps it serves him well until he is older and then you may re-evaluate.

Usually in a case like this pain control plus the right type of exercise slowly improves the body and therefore the situation.
Some dogs improve, some don’t. The ones that don’t usually have owners who don’t do much of the protocol. So, if they keep doing the same thing as before, they get the same result, yes?

I don’t think you are in that catagory.

You guys represent a lot of families I see in my practice, in that you have two working adults, small child(ren), other dogs, etc…and several variations of this norm exist, of course. This norm is perfect for my home-based protocol because it only causes home-based disruption, in that you only have to sacrifice a little time, and my recommendations are based on 30+ years of my understanding of program design for improved function. This combo brings the biggest benefit, greater results, when all factors are weighed. And there is always the option to pay me to come do the exercise and drill work.
I know you get that

And of course my perspective is a little more broad, because I have seen a lot of what happens to animals in a wide variety of circumstances.

The most predominant point I make to clients is that the protocol does not get easier if the animal has surgery; in fact, it becomes an absolute necessity in order for the healing to occur and for the desired outcome from surgery. Without surgery, using my protocol, there is more room for letting something slip with less immediate ramifications, the main two of which post-surgically would be great damage to the surgery and money down the drain, since re-dos aren’t free (in most cases).

More than that is the additional stress and pain for the animal.

I am writing more here than need be to address you guys directly because I plan to share some of this discourse on my blog and giving more info helps a wider range of readers.

You said you stopped the Rimadyl because it was causing gastro distress…GOOD! And I presume from something you said in your texts that you let the vet know. You were not using the Tramadol as consistently, and I recommended you return to dosing as per the label for adequate pain control and especially since it’s all the pharmaceutical pain control you are using. Don’t forget the fish oil, grain-free food, and the glucosamine/chondroitin/msm…and I think you’re doing all that.

And you wondered if you were doing some sort of long-term harm by not having the hip surgery since the vet and staff seem so insistent on Clark having surgery. I covered this answer in part above. Additionally I will say that the exercise physiology and functional rehabilitation protocol I bring to veterinary rehab are not necessarily new to vet med, since race horses have been using protocol similar to that derived from human sport science for decades. These are, however, new concepts in small animal medicine, it seems. I came into vet rehab after 25 years experience in human sport science and nutrition protocol covering the gamut. These principles were novel where I began rehab practice, and I find the programs I have been designing for humans, based on much research performed by people living long before I came around, also are the most beneficial programs and protocol for animals for pre-hab, re-hab, and instead-of-surgery in many cases. No, you can’t just copy a program from Muscle and Fitness magazine…but you can pay attention and learn what actions produce what results. That will take time. The paying attention and learning…

There are some cases that really may need hip surgery, and when the clients have contacted me for pre or non-surgical intervention, at the very least we may say we are doing pre-hab. In the case of luxating hips, even though keeping the dog in a tight sling for weeks will/should work, as per science and experience, it seems almost impossible for most people to maintain the restrictions necessary for the sling to do its work. Disruption too soon=ligament laxity, again, and the ball of the femur keeps popping out. At any rate, it stands to reason that a body realising better function prior to surgery will improve easier post-surgically. That is also proved in research. Dynamic exercise improves every body system, from strengthening bones to improving the health of soft tissue.

I know for a fact, from years of study, evaluation, and observation, that cross-training rehab specialists in sport physiology and program design for dynamic function would elevate overall rehabilitation outcomes across the board. This has actually been an extreme discussion in Europe for the past yea-many years, that of the need for physiotherapists to have a deep(er) foundation in sports physiology and program design. I haven’t seen it hit here as forcefully yet (and we’re talking human medicine, which is paving the way in this arena). Europe is quite a bit more progressive regarding body wellness treatment and sport program design and a variety of similar topics.

Simply put, these exercises will not change noted gross malformations of the femur in an animal with hip problems, however, to note, any gravity-based exercise, weight-bearing exercise, will improve bone density, so changes along those lines will accrue. These exercises, performed as per a program designed for Clark, should improve tendon, ligament, and muscle strength, muscle size, and neuro-muscular signaling, simply put.

Other beneficial things will happen as well, as always do with exercise of the right type for a particular entity. The changes I noted should improve his overall function. To my knowledge, the surgical protocol is to not operate on hips based solely on x-rays and is to operate based on severity of clinical signs. That is what the surgeons say, and that is what the literature says. Vet surgeons in other parts of the U.S. will not operate on dog hips without having the clients do 4-6 weeks of pre-hab first, with the intent of gaining owner compliance and improving the dog’s health, most especially in cases of obesity.

So, the catch here is to have enough of the right variety(ies) of pain control on board while the dog is performing the best exercises for his/her situation and thereby learning to use the affected limb more freely again. With that increased use come the improvements I mentioned. With the improvements comes the need for less medicine, since increased muscle mass and supportive tissue strength will better support the joint.

That’s all I have time for right now, and I think this will help you guys.

Blessings-

 

 

Possible Torn ACL (Cranial Cruciate Ligament)-How Should We Proceed?

Possible Torn ACL (Cranial Cruciate Ligament)-How Should We Proceed?

Hi Deborah!

I’ve enjoyed following the stories you post on FB about the dogs you heal, and who’d’ve thunk I might one day need your services?

My dog, K, has been gimpy for about a month or so (back right leg)… took her to our vet a couple of weeks ago. By poking and prodding, they figured it’s her knee. Gave us some anti-inflammatories and said to keep her from running, going up stairs, etc. It showed improvement during the first week, but then we let her back on the stairs and it’s back to the same.

My former vet friend, P, looked at it a couple of days ago… She strongly suspected an ACL tear.

I poked around a bit on your site, and it looks like there may be a nonsurgical route for ACL injuries…. I thought I’d ping you and ask you a few questions:

– What would our next step be? (we haven’t had x-rays or the “drawer-test” that Pam described to me)

– If we wanted to do any rehab through you, how would that work and what would the fees be?

K seems very happy and it doesn’t really slow her down too much (unfortunately! She wants to continue being the family dog that she is, around us all the time). Yesterday, we decided to confine her (like crate rest), but the problem is, the gimpiness seems worse after she’s been lying down for a while, then it seems to warm up and work itself out once she walks around a bit. So by keeping her confined, she’s lying on it a lot more and not moving as much, so it actually seems worse. (making me wonder if the confinement is the right thing to do…)

Thanks!!
T

My Answer Today:
Hey Gurl…
Goody…I happen to be home and able to give you a better answer via the pc keyboard!
The best option, imho, is to have me come out and do a consult regarding how you should proceed. It usually takes an hour for something like this. I prefer to see animals for the first visit in the home environment so I may discuss potential pitfalls and see home items we may use for drills, among other reasons. I am also able to do phone consults at $1/minute, but I prefer to see the pet in person…

The second best option is for you to go onto my rehab site and look under notes for the homework for post cruciate ligament rupture rehab.
I also have a video posted on YouTube and my WordPress site regarding a massage technique that is beneficial. The Pittie featured in the video is 3 years out from a cruciate ligament tear and never had surgery. He is doing great because the owner did the homework as I recommended. The YouTube link is on my WordPress and is under RehabDeb if you search it.

I do not think I would ever have surgery on one of my own dogs for this issue again. My little Grace had two TPLO’s, the major surgery where the bone is cut and replaced at a different angle, and both didn’t work out. One wouldn’t have worked out because she had a congenital joint disorder on that knee and the surgery wasn’t ever going to be solid, and on the other knee she ended up getting a raging infection at the time of surgery that eventually ate up the whole joint. The Grace had a poor immune system, and she was open too long on the table, due to unforeseen circumstances, among other things.

She was bone on bone in both knees for the last 3 years of her life, yet she was definitely full of life! She ended up tearing all three ligaments in the second knee, so far as I/we can tell, and it was muscle support of the joint that enabled her to function as well as she did. None of the available braces were of a good enough design for her, and I’m not a fan of what is currently available for most dogs, especially not without working on my walking and exercise drill protocol first.
I deal with many dogs whose owners don’t want surgery for a variety of reasons, and the feedback I receive is that they have done great without surgery.
Of course, I also do rehab with many pets that have had surgery also, from both boarded surgeons and regular vets, using all types of modifications.
I’d be glad to discuss the differences.

We don’t do surgery on every human athlete, much less every human, yet most of the dogs are immediately referred to surgery as if there isn’t another answer the vet knows to suggest. This is because the vets are trained to react in that manner, and they usually don’t have any foundation in muscle-building and joint support protocol. Most of the reasons I’ve heard given in favor of surgery aren’t necessarily scientifically correct, according to available research and anecdotal evidence. I’m trying to make my functional rehab protocol using principles of exercise physiology more readily available.

My background in sport science definitely gives me a huge edge in developing protocol for recovery, and it is just taking slow time, getting the word out and getting people to think more wholly about the situation, and to see/know therapies that exist in other areas of physical science and apply them here. The angle of a dog’s knee, or any quad-ped knee, is definitely different than that of a human/bi-ped, however many principles of physiology and of the relationship between soft and hard body tissue apply and are useful to improve function and quality of life.

Blessings!!

(10-17-13 and now you may purchase the guide book for rehab of this condition at http://wp.me/p1wSDA-cU )

Sully’s Story: Great Dane with Lick Granuloma, Spinal Infection (probable), Paralysis, Ulcer, Pneumonia

I first met Sully March 4, 2011, and you have seen him if you have followed some of my posts about him on Facebook and Twitter. I was first called to see him by a mobile vet and the owner stated as her main concern for Sully at the time, “loss of use of hind legs”. The owner, a woman living alone and not able to easily cope with this just-under-200 pounds-dog who couldn’t move on his own, contacted me on Feb. 28, 2011, and our schedules did not match up until the fourth of March…and by that time he had ceased to be mobile and had been stuck, lying on one side, for several days.

The short story for those of you with attention span issues is that Sully couldn’t walk, had a lick granuloma that was about 2 yrs. old, had likely incurred spinal infection from the infected granuloma site, had several urine burn ulcers, developed pneumonia, was treated for pneumonia, which, in turn, developed into long-term treatment for possible spinal infection, was treated for pain, was pushed daily to move in increasing amounts, and is now walking down the street with no assistance.

A case outcome like this is relatively rare, primarily because the owner has stuck with treatment (it works if you work on it and give it time…), and usually a case like this would have been euthanized because he is huge, the owner did not have additional help in the home, he is aggressive, and the owner was not going to have him hospitalized for any reason-not for pneumonia, not for machine-based diagnostics, not for urinary incontinence, not…period.

Sully definitely had some dark moments, yet everything that has happened with Sully has been “do-able”, maybe not optimal by  some of today’s standards, yet definitely “do-able”. I have pushed Sully, the vets, the owner, and any other caretaker every inch of the way to drive us all to give Sully the best treatment we all could…it has definitely been a collaborative effort, and I knew from my background and experience that experiences like ours with Sully were/are very novel to the majority.

Silly Sully

Thank you for your attention thus far, and blessings…please take any of the following info and use it to heal in your corner of the world.

Two block-and-tackles, a belly sling, a saddle girth, some caribiners, and a hind end sling…gets the day going!

April 7, 2012

Today is Sully’s 10th birthday! I have been working with him for one year and one month. A year ago, he couldn’t stand on his own and was sporting a urinary catheter. Last week he tried to run down the street with me! We love us some Sully!

Fat and Fat Reduction – 3 Articles

Fat is Pro-Inflammatory! Weight Loss Helps Relieve Pain From Arthritis (among other things!)

Copied from a recent post on the IVAPM*:

“…I would be looking for some of the non-pharmacologic strategies. You have already mentioned an important one, getting the weight off. Adipose tissue is the body’s largest endocrine organ, and it secretes, especially when in excess, a slew of nasty cytokines that essentially bathes the body – including the synovia and joints – in a soup of pro-inflammatory mediators. We have increasingly strong evidence in dogs that nothing more than weight loss will improve comfort and mobility in this species, including excellent one this year where the authors conclude “results indicate that body weight reduction causes a significant decrease in lameness from a weight loss of 6.10% onwards. Kinetic gait analysis supported the results from a body weight reduction of 8.85% onwards. These results confirm that weight loss should be presented as an important treatment modality to owners of obese dogs with OA and that noticeable improvement may be seen after modest weight loss in the region of 6.10 – 8.85% body weight”.”

Weight loss. There is no substitute. • Lago R, Gomez R, et al A new player in cartilage homeostasis: adiponectin induces nitric oxide synthase type II and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008 Sep;16(9):1101-9. • Impellizeri JA, Tetrick MA, Muir P. Effect of weight reduction on clinical signs of lameness in dogs with hip osteoarthritis. JAVMA 2000 Apr 1;216(7):1089-91 • Burkholder, 2001 • Mlacnik E, Bockstahler BA, Muller M, et al. Effects of caloric restriction and a moderate or intense physiotherapy program for treatment of lameness in overweight dogs with osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 Dec 1;229(11):1756-60. • Marshall WG, Hazewinkel, HA, Mullen D, et al. Vet Res Commun. The effect of weight loss on lameness in obese dogs with osteoarthritis. 2010 Mar;34(3):241-53

*International Veterinary Association of Pain Management

Exercise training in obese older adults prevents increase in bone turnover and attenuates decrease in hip bone mineral density induced by weight loss despite decline in bone-active hormones.

J Bone Miner Res.  2011; 26(12):2851-9 (ISSN: 1523-4681)

Shah K; Armamento-Villareal R; Parimi N; Chode S; Sinacore DR; Hilton TN; Napoli N; Qualls C; Villareal DT
Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Weight loss therapy to improve health in obese older adults is controversial because it causes further bone loss. Therefore, it is recommended that weight loss therapy should include an intervention such as exercise training (ET) to minimize bone loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and ET on bone metabolism in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) in obese older adults. One-hundred-seven older (age >65 years) obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30  kg/m(2) ) adults were randomly assigned to a control group, diet group, exercise group, and diet-exercise group for 1 year. Body weight decreased in the diet (-9.6%) and diet-exercise (-9.4%) groups, not in the exercise (-1%) and control (-0.2%) groups (between-group p  <  0.001). However, despite comparable weight loss, bone loss at the total hip was relatively less in the diet-exercise group (-1.1%) than in the diet group (-2.6%), whereas BMD increased in the exercise group (1.5%) (between-group p  <  0.001). Serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and osteocalcin concentrations increased in the diet group (31% and 24%, respectively), whereas they decreased in the exercise group (-13% and -15%, respectively) (between-group p  <  0.001). In contrast, similar to the control group, serum CTX and osteocalcin concentrations did not change in the diet-exercise group. Serum procollagen propeptide concentrations decreased in the exercise group (-15%) compared with the diet group (9%) (p  =  0.04). Serum leptin and estradiol concentrations decreased in the diet (-25% and -15%, respectively) and diet-exercise (-38% and -13%, respectively) groups, not in the exercise and control groups (between-group p  =  0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that changes in lean body mass (β  =  0.33), serum osteocalcin (β  = -0.24), and one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength (β  =  0.23) were independent predictors of changes in hip BMD (all p  <  0.05). In conclusion, the addition of ET to weight loss therapy among obese older adults prevents weight loss-induced increase in bone turnover and attenuates weight loss-induced reduction in hip BMD despite weight loss-induced decrease in bone-active hormones.

 

Fast Walking and Jogging Halve Development of Heart Disease and Stroke Risk Factors, Research Indicates

The findings indicate that it is the intensity, rather than the duration, of exercise that counts in combating the impact of metabolic syndrome — a combination of factors, including midriff bulge, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, higher than normal levels of blood glucose and abnormal blood fat levels — say the authors.
This has been proved in different studies in different ways for different reasons, mostly related to sport science and training, for many years. Don’t think you don’t have enough time to exercise 🙂

Keep in mind, though, that it’s very slow walks that bring about the benefits at the beginning of rehab, as per my homework instructions!

ScienceDaily (Oct. 8, 2012) — Daily activities, such as fast walking and jogging, can curb the development of risk factors for heart disease and stroke by as much as 50 per cent, whereas an hour’s daily walk makes little difference, indicates research published in the online journal BMJ Open.

The findings indicate that it is the intensity, rather than the duration, of exercise that counts in combating the impact of metabolic syndrome — a combination of factors, including midriff bulge, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, higher than normal levels of blood glucose and abnormal blood fat levels — say the authors.

Genes, diet, and lack of exercise are thought to be implicated in the development of the syndrome, which is conducive to inflammation and blood thickening.

The authors base their findings on more than 10,000 Danish adults, between the ages of 21 and 98, who were initially assessed in 1991-94 and then monitored for up to 10 years. All the participants were quizzed on the amount of physical activity they did, which was categorised according to intensity and duration.

At the initial assessment, around one in five (20.7%) women and just over one in four (27.3%) men had metabolic syndrome. Prevalence was closely linked to physical activity level.

Among the women, almost one in three of those who had a sedentary lifestyle had the syndrome whereas only one in 10 of those who were very physically active had it. Among men, the equivalent proportions were just under 37% and just under 14%

Of the remaining 6,088 participants without metabolic syndrome, just under two thirds (3,992) completed the fourth and final survey and assessment, by which point one in seven (15.4%; 585) had developed it.

Again, the prevalence was higher among those leading a sedentary lifestyle, with almost one in five (19.4%) affected compared with around one in nine (11.8%) of those who were very physically active.

It was not only the amount of exercise, but also the intensity which helped curb the likelihood of developing the syndrome.

After taking account of factors likely to influence the results, fast walking speed halved the risk, while jogging cut the risk by 40 per cent. But going for an hour’s walk every day made no difference.

“Our results confirm the role of physical activity in reducing [metabolic syndrome] risk and suggest that intensity rather than volume of physical activity is important,” conclude the authors.